Lisa Novita Sari Suka menulis dan berbagi pengetahuan

Narrative Text

3 min read

Narrative Text, Foto oleh unsplash

Selain mempelajari tentang descriptive text dan report text, di bangku SMP kamu juga akan mempelajari tentang narrative text di mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris. Teks ini merupakan jenis teks yang pasti familiar bagimu. 

Jika kamu pernah membaca fabel, legenda, atau cerita dongeng, itu hanyalah sebagian kecil dari contoh narrative text. Nah, Studio Literasi telah membahas secara lengkap mulai dari pengertian, ciri, jenis, language feature, generic structure sampai contoh teks naratif.

Pengertian / Definition of Narrative Text

Narrative text adalah salah satu jenis teks yang berisi pengisahan cerita yang mempunyai rangkaian plot/peristiwa secara kronologis dan saling terhubung. Kisah dalam narrative text merupakan kisah fiksi/khayalan.

Karena narrative text berisi cerita fiksi (tidak nyata), maka kisahnya pun bersifat imajiner dan belum tentu benar. 

Tujuan Narrative Text

Tujuan (the purpose) dari narrative text ialah untuk menghibur pembaca (to entertain) tentang suatu kisah atau cerita fiksi.

Jenis Narrative Text

Ada banyak contoh genre narrative text, antara lain:

  1. Fable 
  2. Fairy tale
  3. Folktale
  4. Myth
  5. Legend
  6. Love story/romance
  7. Horror
  8. Science fiction

Ciri-ciri Narrative Text

Teks naratif memiliki ciri khas tersendiri. Ciri tersebut yaitu sebagai berikut.

  1. Berisi kisah-kisah/dongeng yang terjadi di masa lalu
  2. Noun (kata benda) sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan atau benda
  3. Mayoritas teks naratif adalah cerita yang sudah diketahui dan berkembang dalam masyarakat. Di Indonesia contohnya Malin Kundang
  4. Adanya tema, setting, tokoh, konflik dan penyelesaian sebagai bagian dari unsur cerita
  5. .Adanya conjunction (konjungsi) yang dipakai untuk mengurutkan kejadian cerita

Unsur Kebahasaan (Language Feature)

Unsur kebahasaan (language feature) teks naratif berbeda dengan report text atau descriptive text. Berikut uraiannya.

  1. Karena narrative text menceritakan kisah masa lalu, maka tenses yang digunakan adalah Simple Past Tense. Contoh: killed, sacrificed
  2. Adanya keterangan waktu (adverbia). Contoh: One time, once upon a time, one day
  3. .Adanya konjungsi waktu (time conjunction). Contoh: when, suddenly, as soon as
  4. .Pemakaian karakter cerita/tokoh yang spesifik. Contoh: malin kundang, cinderella
  5. Pemakaian action verb (kata kerja aksi)
  6. Penggunaan kata kerja yang menunjukkan pelaporan atau bentuk ujaran. Contoh: thought, said

Generic Structure of Narrative Text

Struktur teks naratif berfungsi untuk membedakannya dengan jenis teks lainnya. Selain itu, generic structure juga merupakan pembangun teks naratif. Ada empat struktur yang menjadi tahapan dalam teks ini, yaitu sebagai berikut.

Orientation (Orientasi)

Orientasi merupakan pendahuluan/bagian pembuka cerita. Di sini, dikenalkan siapa tokoh yang terlibat dalam cerita, di mana settingnya, serta kapan waktu terjadinya cerita.

Complication (Komplikasi)

Complication berisi pemunculan masalah. Di sini, konflik mulai muncul dengan melibatkan tokoh utama. Permasalahan ini akan terus berkembang sampai pada puncaknya (klimaks).

Resolution

Bagian ini berisi penyelesaian konflik cerita. Permasalahan yang memuncak telah mereda dan ditemukan solusinya. Cerita bisa menjadi lebih buruk, atau lebih baik, sehingga dari sini dapat diketahui apakah akan terjadi sad ending atau happy ending. 

Coda/Reorientation

Bagian ini merupakan penutup cerita yang bersifat opsional, artinya boleh ada boleh tidak. Coda dapat berupa pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita, pesan moral, atau saran.

Contoh Narrative Text 1

The Hairless Puppy

Contoh narative text 1
Contoh narrative text 1, Foto Oleh Pinterest

Once upon a time in a small town, a mother of dog gave birth to 5 little puppies. Four of the puppies had thick and soft white fur while the one puppy, the youngest, was hairless. It made him become the ugliest among others.

“Mommy let’s go out to the park,” the older puppy said.

“Come on, Mom, Come on!” followed by the other puppies.

Then, she took her children to the park. She wanted to teach the puppies how to bark. On the way to it, they met several people. They complimented the four puppies with white fur.

“How adorable they are!” a little girl said to her sister.

“These puppies have the most beautiful fur,” flattered an old man.

The four puppies were all happy receiving those compliments, but not for the youngest. He was sad because no one was showing fondness to him.

There were some families of dogs when they arrived at the park. They stared at the ugly puppy and started mumbling.

“What kind of puppy is that?”, one dog said.

“He has nothing to cover his skin,” another dog barked.

At first, the mother of the puppies did not care about what others said until it was the time to learn how to bark. The hairless puppy could not produce a bold voice to bark. His bark sounded like a rat. It attracted other dogs’ attention. They started to laugh, and shout, “You are not a dog. Dogs bark.”

The mother was embarrassed of her youngest. She decided to end the bark learning and went home. At home, she let out her emotions.

“Are you even my child? How can you not be able to bark? And where is your fur? You are hairless. You are different, you are not one of us,” shouted the mother to the hairless puppy.

At night, when the mother and the four brothers were sleeping, the hairless puppy ran away from home. He was sad knowing that became the one who made her mother upset.

He went to another town. It was raining, and he took shelter under a tree. He got hit a lot by dirty water when a car passed him.

It was raining harder when a car stopped by. An old woman approached and took him to the car.

“Oh baby, you are freezing. What a poor puppy,” she said while putting him into the blanket.

It came out that this old woman loved the hairless dog very much. She took good care of him until the hairless puppy became the hairless dog.

The hairless dog even won first place in a dog competition. It was because of his unique appearance.

Finally, the hairless dog found the one who truly loved him, and people also started to adore him.

Moral : Everyone has their own beauty. Being different does not make you ugly. It makes you unique.

Last Updated on September 11, 2020

Avatar
Lisa Novita Sari Suka menulis dan berbagi pengetahuan

11 Contoh Narrative Text

Selsi Selvia Selsi Selvia
17 min read

Passive Voice

Selsi Selvia Selsi Selvia
3 min read

Report Text

Avatar Lisa Novita Sari
2 min read

Tinggalkan Balasan

Alamat email Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *

Scroll Top