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Passive Voice

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Passive Voice: Pengertian, Rumus, Ciri, Contoh Passive Voice Lengkap
Passive Voice, Foto oleh UI Here

Dalam pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia pasti kalian sudah mengenal apa itu kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif. Nah… materi ini juga terdapat dalam Bahasa Inggris loh. Tetapi, dalam kesempatan ini, kita akan belajar tentang kalimat pasif atau Passive Voice.

Pengertian Passive Voice

Passive voice adalah bentuk kalimat dimana subjek tidak melakukan aksi, melainkan mendapat aksi. Ini adalah kebalikan dari active voice atau kalimat aktif. 

Perbedaan antara passive voice dan active voice dapat kalian lihat pada tabel berikut.

Active VoicePassive Voice
Tony saves a cat from drowning.
Tony menyelamatkan kucing yang tenggelam.
A cat is saved by Toni from drowning.
atau
A cat is saved by him from drowning.
Seekor kucing yang tenggelam diselamatkan olehnya.

Ciri-Ciri Passive Voice

Passive voice memiliki ciri khasnya sendiri yang dapat membedakan dengan jenis lainnya, seperti:

  • Kalimat pasif Bahasa Inggris atau passive voice selalu mengandung to be dan verb3.
  • Dalam passive voice biasa ditemukan kata by (oleh) yang berfungsi untuk menjelaskan pelaku atau subject.
  • Dalam passive voice selalu ditemui object.
  • Kata kerja atau verb pada passive voice merupakan jenis transitive verbs.

Transitive verbs merupakan kata kerja yang membutuhkan object, seperti love, change, pull, bring, make, dan lain-lain.

Kalimat dengan transitive verb akan menjadi incomplete sentence atau kalimat tidak lengkap apabila tidak diikuti object. Contoh:

Transitive Verb + Object
Transitive Verb tanpa Object
I bring coffee.
Kalimat di atas sudah lengkap, terdiri dari Subject (I), Verb (bring), dan Object (coffee).
Kalimat dapat dimengerti.
I bring. 
Kalimat di atas tidak lengkap, terkesan seperti kalimat yang belum selesai disusun.
Kalimat tidak dapat dimengerti, apa yang dibawa?

Penggunaan

Jika kalian bertanya kapan sih waktu yang tepat untuk menggunakan passive voice? Passive voice digunakan untuk apa ya sebenarnya? Nah pertanyaan kalian akan dijawab di bawah.

Jadi kalimat pasif atau passive voice dapat digunakan pada beberapa situasi berikut ini:

  • Ketika pelaku/subject tidak diketahui.

The bathroom is cleaned every Sunday.

  • Ketika fokus utamanya merupakan aksi bukan pelaku.

The greeting card was sent at 6 p.m by my brother.

Rumus Passive Voice

Membuat atau mengganti kalimat aktif menjadi pasif memang sedikit rumit. Ditambah, dalam Bahasa Inggris, passive voice harus menyesuaikan ke 16 jenis tenses yang ada. 

Nah…maka dari itu, Studio Literasi telah menyiapkan rumus-rumus yang dapat mempermudah proses tersebut.

Simple Present Tense
RumusContoh
Active: S + V1 + O
Passive: O + to be am/is/are + V3 + by + S
Active: They sing a song.
Passive: A song is sung by them.
Simple Past Tense
RumusContoh
Active: S + V2 + O
Passive: O + to be was/were + V3 + by + S
Active: They sang a song.
Passive: A song was sung by them.
Simple Future
RumusContoh
Active voice:S + Will/Shall + V1 + O
Passive voice:O + Will/Shall + be + V3 + by + S
Active: They will sing a song.
Passive: A song will be sung by them.
Present Continuous
RumusContoh
Active: S + to be am/is/are + Ving + O
Passive: O + to be am/is/are + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They are singing a song.
Passive: A song is being sung by them.
Past Continuous
RumusContoh
Active: S + to be was/were + Ving + O
Passive: O + to be was/were + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They were singing a song.
Passive: A song was being sung by them.
Future Continuous
RumusContoh
Active: S + Will/Shall + be + Ving + O
Passive: O + Will/Shall + be + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They will be singing a song.
Passive: A song will be being sung by them.
Past Future
RumusContoh
Active: S + Would + V1 + O
Passive: O + Would + be + V3 + by + S
Active: They would sing a song.
Passive: A song would be sung by them.
Past Future Continuous
RumusContoh
Active voice: S + Would + be + Ving + O
Passive: O + Would + be + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They would be singing a song.
Passive: A song would be being sung by them.
Present Perfect
RumusContoh
Active voice: S + Have/Has + V3 + O
Passive: O + Have/Has + been + V3 + by + S
Active: They have sung a song.
Passive: A song has been sung by them.
Past Perfect
RumusContoh
Active: S + Had + V3 + O
Passive: O + Had + been + V3 + by + S
Active: They had sung a song.
Passive: A song had been sung by them.
Future Perfect
RumusContoh
Active: S + Will + Have + V3 + O
Passive: O + Will + Have + been + V3 + by + S
Active: They will have sung a song.
Passive: A song will have been sung by them.
Present Perfect Continuous
RumusContoh
Active: S + Have/Has + been + Ving + O
Passive: O + Has + been + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They have been singing a song.
Passive: A song has been being sung by them.
Past Perfect Continuous
RumusContoh
Active: S + Had + been + Ving + O
Passive: O + Had + been + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They had been singing a song.
Passive: A song had been being sung by them.
Future Perfect Continuous
RumusContoh
Active: S + Will + Have + been + Ving + O
Passive: O + Will + have + been + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They will have been singing a song.
Passive: A song will have been being sung by them.
Past Future Perfect
RumusContoh
Active: S + Would + Have + V3 + O
Passive: O + Would + have + been + V3 + by + S
Active: They would have sung a song.
Passive: A song would have been sung by them.
Past Future Perfect Continuous
RumusContoh
Active: S + Would + Have + been + Ving + O
Passive: O + Would + have + been + being + V3 + by + S
Active: They would have been singing a song.
Passive: A song would have been being sung by them.

Contoh Passive Voice

Berikut contoh-contoh penggunaan passive voice pada 16 tenses Bahasa Inggris.

  1. Our cats were loved by us.
  2. A new car was driven by me.
  3. The guitar will be played by her.
  4. The door is being pushed by Michael.
  5. The police were being called by Joana.
  6. Huge backpacks will be being carried by them.
  7. The vitamins would be consumed by him.
  8. Your pet would be being described by you.
  9. The file has been sent by Rio.
  10. The thieves had been forgiven by me.
  11. The handle will have been grabbed by Emily before it falls.
  12. His money has been being hid by Mr. Crab in the locker.
  13. All the lessons in elementary school had been being forgotten by me.
  14. The latest information about Covid-19 will have been being followed by Ms. Rahma.
  15. The earthquake would have been felt by you if you were awake.
  16. The building would have been being destroyed by the truck for the second time by the end of the day.
Passive Voice
Passive Voice, Foto oleh Depostiphotos

Nah…..gimana menurut kalian materi Passive Voice kali ini? Mudah bukan? Kalau kalian ada pertanyaan, langsung saja tulis di kolom komentar ya, cheers!

Last Updated on September 24, 2020

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